Richard J. Aldrich


Richard Aldrich has a long-standing interest in intelligence and security communities. This has focused on the diplomacy conducted by intelligence communities - or 'liaison' - and its role within alliances. Some of his work has been undertaken within the framework of the Intelligence Liaison and Alliance Research project (ILAR) initiated by Professor Martin Rudner at Carleton University in Ottawa. Over the last ten years he has completed two large-scale case studies of the politics of secret service collaboration which were initiated by an ACLS-Fulbright Fellowship at Georgetown University. The first examined Anglo-American intelligence co-operation in the war against Japan, the second explored the first two decades of the Cold War. The latter appeared as The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence (London: John Murray, 2001 & New York: Overlook, 2002). A further short essay entitled 'Transatlantic intelligence and security co-operation', International Affairs, 80, 3 (July 2004): 331-55, looks at some current issues.

He also sustains an interest in wider issues of social choice related to security, secrecy and privacy set against a background of globalisation. This extends from developments in IT, including public key cryptography, to declassification regimes and 'open government'. The technology of secrecy, particularly that which provides secure communications, has exerted an important but largely neglected influence upon the conduct of international relations. He is involved in several medium term projects which investigate this subject.

He has longer-term ambitions to consider the different typologies of secret service community since the Treaty of Westphalia, how they contribute to phases of state development and how they respond to major changes in the international system. This might be called the 'historical sociology of secret service'.



Richard Betts


Richard Betts (Ph.D., Harvard, 1975) is the Leo A. Shifrin Professor of War and Peace Studies and Director, Institute of War and Peace Studies. He is a specialist on national security policy and military strategy. He was a Senior Fellow and Research Associate at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC from 1976-1990 and has taught at Harvard and the Johns Hopkins University's Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. Dr. Betts has also served on the staff of the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and as a consultant to the National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency. In addition to numerous journal articles in International Security, World Politics, Foreign Affairs, and elsewhere he has published Military Readiness (Brookings, 1995); Soldiers, Statesmen, and Cold War Crises, 2d edition (Columbia University Press, 1991); Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance (Brookings, 1987); and Surprise Attack (Brookings, 1982). He has also co-authored or edited three other books, including The Irony of Vietnam (Brookings, 1979), which won the Woodrow Wilson Prize.

Dr. Betts research interests are War and Strategy, U.S. foreign policy, Defense policy, Nuclear weapons / other weapons of mass destruction, U.S. policymaking processes, Intelligence analysis and foreign policy, European security, Security issues in Asia, History of the Cold War, and Arms control.


Michael Byers


Dr. Michael Byers is Canada Research Chair (Tier One) in Global Politics and International Law at the University of British Columbia, where he also serves as Academic Director of the Liu Institute for Global Issues. Prior to July 2004, he was Professor of Law (with tenure) and Director of the Center for Canadian Studies at Duke University.  Professor Byers� work focuses on the interaction of international law and international politics, particularly with regard to security issues, lawmaking, and Canada-United States relations. He is the author of Custom, Power and the Power of Rules: International Relations and Customary International Law (Cambridge University Press, 1999), the editor of The Role of Law in International Politics (Oxford University Press, 2000) and the co-editor of United States Hegemony and the Foundations of International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2003). His most recent academic article, in the July 2004 issue of the American Journal of International Law, is entitled �Policing the High Seas: The Proliferation Security Initiative.� Professor Byers is also a regular contributor to the London Review of Books and frequently contributes to newspapers, radio and TV programs around the world.



Bill Elliott


Bill Elliott possesses a Bachelor of Arts and a Law Degree, both from the University of Ottawa. He was called to the Bar of Ontario in 1981.

He practiced law in Ottawa until joining the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister of Canada in 1988.In that office he played various roles, including Chief of Staff, and provided advice and analysis on a broad range of economic, social and policy issues. In 1992, Mr. Elliott joined the Department of Justice and was subsequently appointed Head of Legal Services for the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.Mr. Elliott was appointed Deputy Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans in 1998. In 2000, Mr. Elliott assumed the responsibilities of Assistant Deputy Minister, Safety and Security, at Transport Canada.The Safety and Security Group is responsible for safety, security and regulatory oversight in all modes of transportation.It led the department�s response to the terrorist attacks in the United States of America on September 11, 2001.This included the closing of Canadian airspace and the diversion of flights destined to the United States, and temporary and ongoing transportation security enhancements, including the creation of the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority.

����������� Mr. Elliott was appointed Assistant Secretary to the Cabinet, Security and Intelligence, in June of 2003.


Michael Herman


Michael Herman served from 1952 to 1987 in Britain's Government Communications Headquarters, the national agency for signals intelligence, with secondments to the Cabinet Office (as Secretary of the Joint Intelligence Committee) and the Ministry of Defence.Since retirement he has written extensively on intelligence matters, with official clearance.His book Intelligence Power in Peace and War was published in 1996 by Cambridge University Press in conjunction with the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and has been regularly reprinted.His Intelligence Services in the Information Age was published at the end of 2001.He has been associated with Nuffield College Oxford, King's College London, and Keele University, and was a Senior Associate Member of St Antony's College Oxford from 2000 to 2003.He is now an Honorary Departmental Fellow at Aberystwyth University and continues to run intelligence seminars in Oxford.



Major General Andrew Leslie


Major General Andrew Leslie was born December 1957. His initial schooling was conducted in Canada, the USA, France, Cyprus, and Switzerland. His family has a tradition of military service and he joined the Army Reserves in 1977 (30th Field Artillery Regiment) while pursuing an Economics degree at the University of Ottawa. Later, as a graduate student in military history at the University of London, England, he was attached to the Honorable Artillery Company. In 1980 he attended the International Peace Academy UN Staff Seminar in Vienna, Austria. In 1981, he transferred to the regular force and served with 1 RCHA in Germany during which he completed the British Army Troop Commanders course, French Army Commando training, the hand to hand combat course, and the combat intelligence course.

After a succession of field tours with mechanized and airborne combat units in Germany, Cyprus and Canada and command appointments up to regimental level, in early 1995 he was promoted to Colonel and sent to the Former Yugoslavia as Chief of Staff Sector South (Brigade Level). He was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal for his actions under fire during the fighting for Knin in August 1995. He then became Chief of Staff UNCRO (Division level), and finally Chief of Staff of UNPF (Mission level). Following the UN hand-over to NATO forces, BGen Leslie returned to Western Canada as the Area Chief of Staff in 1996, and served in that capacity during the Manitoba floods of spring 1997.

In July 1997 he became the Commander of 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1CMBG), an infantry-heavy formation, where the focus was on live-fire combined arms training. In early 1998 1CMBG deployed to the South shore of Montreal to assist with ice-storm disaster relief operations, followed by an almost continuous cycle of Battle Group and Brigade exercises. That same year he was awarded the Order of Military Merit. In early 1999, 1CMBG tightened its focus on complex peace support/peacemaking missions in anticipation of a deployment to Kosovo.

His training includes a variety of courses such as the combat team commander's course, Army Staff College and the Canadian Forces Staff College. His education includes degrees in Economics and Military History, including a Masters in War Studies from RMC. Promoted BGen in late 1999, he completed both the Advanced Military Studies and the National Security Studies Courses in Toronto.

In 2000 he became the Director General Information Management Operations, responsible for Canadian Forces Groups and Regiments of the communications field force, signals/electronic intelligence, and computer network operations. He was appointed Commander Land Forces Central Area in 2002, where he was responsible for one regular and three reserve Brigade Groups and numerous support formations, training establishments, bases and units.

In July 2003 MGen Leslie was appointed Commander of Land Force Doctrine and Training System. MGen Leslie was appointed Deputy Commander of the International Security Assistance Force in Kabul, Afghanistan in August 2003. Following his tour in Afghanistan, MGen Leslie served as Acting Assistant Chief of the Land Staff until September 2004. He is currently a PhD candidate in War Studies at the Royal Military College of Canada.



Lieutenant General J. Steven Lucas


Lieutenant-General Lucas was born in February 1952 in Toronto, Ontario. He graduated from high school in Winnipeg, Manitoba. He is a graduate of the Royal Military College, the Canadian Forces Command and Staff College and the National Defence College.

In May 1973, he undertook air navigator training at the Canadian Forces Air Navigation School in Winnipeg, receiving his wings in February 1974. Promoted to Major in 1981, Lieutenant-General Lucas was posted to National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ), Ottawa, in the Directorate of Air Plans. On promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel in July 1986, he was posted to CFB Edmonton as Base Operations Officer. During that period he was named as commander for OPERATION NILE, a UN-sponsored humanitarian food lift in Ethiopia. In July 1989, he assumed command of 435 (T) Squadron, located in Edmonton. After one year in this position, he was promoted to Colonel and assumed command of Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay.

In 1993, he was posted to NDHQ as Director of Joint Requirements within the Force Development Branch. In August of 1996, he became Director of Aerospace Planning Coordination within the Aerospace Development Division. Promoted to Brigadier-General effective December 1996, he assumed the position of A4 Support at 1 Canadian Air Division Headquarters in the summer of 1997. In December 1997, he moved laterally to the position of A3.

Lieutenant-General Lucas was promoted Major-General in July 2000 and assumed command of 1 Canadian Air Division/Canadian NORAD Region until July 2002 at which point he was appointed Chief of Staff, Assistant Deputy Minister (Human Resources � Military) at NDHQ.

In March 2003, he assumed the position of Chief of Staff Joint Force Generation within the DCDS Group. Lieutenant-General Lucas was promoted to his current rank in April 2004 and was appointed Special Advisor to the Chief of the Defence Staff for Defence Policy Review and Homeland Security Issues.






Thomas Powers


Thomas Powers is a Putlitzer Prize-winning journalist whose most recent book is Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to Al Qaeda, a collection of essays written over the last 20 years, published by New York Review/Granta Books in 2003. Previous books include a novel, The Confirmation, published by Alfred Knopf in June 2000, and several works of non-fiction. Heisenberg�s War: The Secret History of the German Bomb (Knopf, 1993), was widely reviewed and sparked a continuing controversy. More recently, the book inspired British playwright Michael Frayn to write Copenhagen about the 1941 visit of Werner Heisenberg to Niels Bohr, which opened in London in 1998 and on Broadway in 2000, where it won a Tony Award as the year�s best play. Heisenberg�s War was also published in Germany, France, Britain, Italy, Japan and Taiwan.

Powers is currently working on a non-fiction account of the last year of the Great Sioux

War (1877).

Powers has been a contributing editor of The Atlantic and of The Los Angeles Times

Opinion Section, and has also published frequent articles and reviews in the New York Review of Books, the New York Times Book Review , the New York Times Magazine, Harper�s, The Nation, Rolling Stone and numerous other periodicals. The best known of his previous books is The Man who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (Knopf, 1979), which was recognized by the National Intelligence Study Center in Washington as the best book on the subject of intelligence in 1979.

����������� Other books by Powers are Thinking About the Next War (Knopf, 1982), The War at

Home: Vietnam and the American People (Viking, 1973) and Diana: the Making of a Terrorist (Houghton Mifflin, 1973). Powers has been a freelance writer since 1970. He is a graduate of Yale University (1964) and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He lives with his wife Candace in Vermont where he was one of the four founding partners and editors who established Steerforth Press, a literary trade publishing house, in 1993. As a writer he is represented by Lynn Nesbit of the Janklow-Nesbit Associates, 445 Park avenue; New York city 10022-2606; 212-421-1700.



Margaret Purdy




Margaret Purdy joined the Centre of International Relations at the University of British Columbia as a Visiting Scholar in May 2003.While at UBC, Margaret is studying the future prospects for international terrorism, with particular attention on the implications for Canadian public policy and public administration.

Margaret Purdy est chercheuse invit�e au Centre des relations internationales de l�Universit� de la Colombie‑Britannique depuis mai 2003. Elle y �tudie l��volution du terrorisme international, et en particulier les incidences sur l�administration et les politiques publiques au Canada.




Margaret is an Associate Deputy Minister with the Government of Canada and she will continue her career with the federal public service following her academic sabbatical at UBC.

Mme Purdy, qui est Sous-ministre d�l�gu�e du gouvernement du Canada, reprendra sa carri�re dans la fonction publique f�d�rale apr�s avoir b�n�fici� d�un cong� sabbatique pour �tudier � l�Universit� de la Colombie‑Britannique.



Margaret was born in Nova Scotia.She has a Bachelor of Journalism (Honours) degree from Carleton University in Ottawa and a Bachelor of Education degree from Dalhousie University in Halifax.She also graduated from the National Defence College of Canada in Kingston.

Mme Purdy est n�e en Nouvelle-�cosse. Elle est titulaire d�un baccalaur�at sp�cialis� en journalisme de l�Universit� Carleton (Ottawa) et d�un baccalaur�at en �ducation de l�Universit� Dalhousie (Halifax). Elle est aussi dipl�m�e du Coll�ge de la D�fense nationale du Canada (Kingston).



After working as a print journalist in Nova Scotia and Ottawa, Margaret joined the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1975 as a civilian member.In her 12 years with the RCMP, she specialized in protective policing and criminal intelligence analysis.

Apr�s avoir �t� journaliste en Nouvelle‑�cosse et � Ottawa, Mme Purdy trouve un emploi � la Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC) en 1975. Elle y travaille pendant douze ans comme membre civil sp�cialis� dans les services de protection et l�analyse du renseignement criminel.



She held public affairs positions with the provincial governments of Nova Scotia and British Columbia before joining the Ministry of the Solicitor General in Ottawa, where she worked on national security matters.

Plus tard, elle est employ�e comme agente des affaires publiques par les gouvernements de la Nouvelle‑�cosse et de la Colombie-Britannique. Elle entre par la suite au minist�re du Solliciteur g�n�ral, � Ottawa, pour s�occuper de s�curit� nationale.



Between 1993 and 1995, Margaret managed the counter-terrorism program of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service.

De 1993 � 1995, Mme Purdy g�re le programme d'antiterrorisme du Service canadien du renseignement de s�curit� (SCRS).



She moved to the Privy Council Office in 1995, where she served as Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet for Security and Intelligence.

En 1995, Mme Purdy accepte un poste au Bureau du Conseil priv�, � titre de sous-secr�taire du Cabinet, S�curit� et renseignement.



Before her move to the University of British Columbia, Margaret served as Associate Deputy Minister of National Defence for Canada, a position that included responsibility for establishing the Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness.

Avant d�entreprendre ses travaux � l�Universit� de la Colombie‑Britannique, Mme Purdy �tait Sous-ministre d�l�gu�e au minist�re de la D�fense nationale du Canada, o� elle a �t� charg�e notamment de la mise sur pied du Bureau de la protection des infrastructures essentielles et de la protection civile.



Paul Rutherford


Paul Rutherford is a professor of cultural history at the University of Toronto where he has taught since 1969.He specializes in the study of media and marketing, both in North America and the wider world.His most recent books are Endless Propaganda: The Advertising of Public Goods (2000) and Weapons of Mass Persuasion: Marketing the War against Iraq (2004).



Jacques J. M. Shore


Mr. Shore is a Partner in the Advocacy Department and Government Relations Practice Group in Gowlings Ottawa office and has accumulated extensive experience in both the private and public sectors since 1980. His areas of focus include administrative law, negotiations, trade and procurement issues, environmental issues, security intelligence and criminal justice matters, government relations and government advisory work. An adviser to numerous Canadian and international companies and business interests on legal, government and public law issues, Mr. Shore has also acted as a negotiator on many business and government-related initiatives. As well, Mr. Shore has extensive experience in dealing with and in advising not-for-profit corporations and non-governmental organizations. Since its inception in 2002, he has acted as general counsel to the General Insurance OmbudService, a national body organized by federal regulators and the insurance industry to address consumer complaints.

Mr. Shore has worked actively on behalf of the federal government of Canada on a broad range of legal and public policy matters, including serving for five years as Canada's chief negotiator on the Algonquins of Golden Lake land claim, and leading a team of lawyers in providing legal counsel to the Office of the Interim Commissioner for Nunavut, during the final phase leading up to the division of the Northwest Territories.

Called to the Bar in Ontario in 1982, the Bar in Qu�bec in 1988, and the Bars of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut in 1999, Mr. Shore graduated civil law (LLL) from the Universit� de Montr�al (1978) and common law (LLB) from McGill University (1980). His studies also included a program in international law at the City of London Polytechnic in England (1977).

Prior to joining Gowlings, Mr. Shore was the first director of research of the Security

Intelligence Review Committee and a senior staff member of the Macdonald Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada. Mr. Shore's responsibilities included legal/constitutional work and co-ordinating the research effort on the Northern Territories. As well, he assisted in the research and writing initiatives for portions of the Royal Commission's final report. Starting his professional career in Ottawa in 1981, Mr. Shore spent two years in criminal justice at the Secretariat of the Ministry of the Solicitor General and assisted in the co-ordination of the Federal-Provincial Ministers' conferences on criminal justice.

Mr. Shore is a member of the University of Ottawa Heart Institute's Clinical Ethics Committee and legal counsel to the Human Research Ethics Committee. He serves as a Chair of the Advisory Board of the Financial Services Commission of Ontario and was admitted as a member of the Arbitration and Mediation Institute of Ontario in 1995.

Actively involved in the community, Mr. Shore is a member of Carleton University�s Board of Governors, its Executive, and he is Chair of the Board's Community Relations and Advancement Committee. He is also a member of the Board of Governors and of the Board�s Human Resources Committee at Ashbury College. As well, Mr. Shore is the Chair of the Council of Advisers of the Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies at Carleton University and a member of the National Honourary Board of Leave Out Violence. Mr. Shore is a founder of the Law Society of Upper Canada's bar Admission Advisory Committee and a founder and former Director of the Qu�bec Society of Medicine and Law.

A published writer, Mr. Shore has authored articles on legal issues and public policy. He has also written commentaries for a variety of newspapers and journals including, the Globe and Mail and Le Devoir, and is the author of a children�s book. He is a member of the Writers� Union of Canada.

Mr. Shore has played an active role in developing professional legal activities internationally and, specifically, in Central and Eastern Europe. He speaks English, French and Polish and has a functional knowledge of German.



Joel J. Sokolsky


����������� Dr. Joel J. Sokolsky is Dean of Arts and a Professor of Political Science at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). He is also a Senior Fellow at the Queen�s University Centre for International Relations, a Research Fellow with the Institute for Research on Public Policy and a Research Affiliate at the Strategic Studies Program of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.He earned his Honours BA. at the University of Toronto, an MA from the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, (SAIS), and a PhD in government from Harvard University.

����������� Dr. Sokolsky has taught at the Canadian Studies Center at SAIS, Dalhousie University. Duke University and Bridgewater State College His areas of interest and teaching include Canadian foreign and defence policy, international security relations and American foreign and defence policy. He has been the recipient of several scholarships and awards including two NATO Fellowships and two Fulbright Scholarships.In 1995, he was named to the Teaching Excellence Honours List at RMC and in 2003 was awarded the Queen�s Golden Jubilee Medal.

����������� Dr. Sokolsky has been the author, co‑author and co‑editor of a number of books, monographs and articles.His most recent works include, The Revolution in Military Affairs and the Future of Arms Control and Verification, Sailing in Concert: The Strategy and Politics of Canada-U.S. Naval Interoperability, The Soldier and The State in the Post-Cold War and, Realism Canadian Style: National Security and the Chretien Legacy.

����������� Dr. Sokolsky has served as a consultant to several government offices and represented Canada on the Secretariat Working Group of the NATO/Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes.



Wesley Wark


����������� Professor Wark is an Associate Professor in the Department of History at the Munk Centre for International Affairs, University of Toronto, and a Fellow of Trinity College and the Munk Centre for International Studies.

He completed his B.A. at Carleton University, his M.A. at Cambridge and his Ph.D. at the London School of Economics (LSE).

Professor Wark is an expert on Canadian and international intelligence and security issues, and has published over the past twenty years numerous books and articles on this subject.

Professor Wark is the author, most recently, of a collection of essays entitled The Future of Intelligence. It appeared as a special issue of the journal Intelligence and National Security (Vol. 18, no.4, Winter 2003) and will be issued in book form in the Fall of 2004 by Routledge.He is completing an official history of the Canadian intelligence community during the Cold War. He is also preparing for publication the Canadian Spy Stories Anthology. Professor Wark�s next book project will be a study of intelligence failures since September 11, 2001.

He has appeared on numerous media programmes as a commentator on international politics, security and intelligence issues. He also writes frequently for The Globe and Mail.

Professor Wark is the Past-President of the Canadian Association for Security and Intelligence Studies (1998-2000)



Reg Whitaker


����������� Reg Whitaker is Distinguished Research Professor (Emeritus), York University, where he taught from 1984 to 2001 and is currently Adjunct Professor of Political Science at the University of Victoria. He is the author of a number of books, the most recent being Canada and the Cold War (2003, with Steve Hewitt), and The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance is Becoming a Reality (1999), which has also appeared in French, German, Spanish, and Korean editions. Publications also include Cold War Canada: the Making of a National Insecurity State, 1945-1957 (1994); A Sovereign Idea: Essays on Canada as a Democratic Community (1992); Double Standard: the Secret History of Canadian Immigration (1987); and The Government Party: Organizing and Financing the Liberal Party of Canada, 1930-58 (1977).



David Wright


David S. Wright is the Kenneth and Patricia Taylor Distinguished Visiting Professor in Foreign Affairs at Victoria College, University of Toronto.From 1997 - 2003he was Canadian Ambassador to NATO, and earlier served as Canadian Ambassador to Spain and as Assistant Deputy Minister for Europe in the Department of Foreign Affairs.


Robert Wright


On December 12, 2003, Prime Minister Paul Martin announced the appointment of Rob Wright as National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister, in addition to his current responsibilities.In April 2003, Mr. Wright was appointed Associate Secretary to the Cabinet, Deputy Minister to the Deputy Prime Minister and Security and Intelligence Coordinator, Privy Council Office.

Mr. Wright began his federal government career in 1975 as an economist with the Department of External Affairs.Over the next 12 years he held various positions at the National Energy Board, the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, and the Department of Finance.

����������� In 1987, he was appointed Assistant Secretary to the Cabinet (Priorities and Planning) at the Privy Council Office, during which time he was in charge of the expenditure review committee to reduce government expenditures.He held that position until 1989 when he was appointed Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet (Plans) at the Privy Council Office.This position included coordinating cabinet consideration of budget matters.

����������� The Prime Minister then appointed Mr. Wright as Deputy Minister, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 1992.In August 1994, he became High Commissioner for Canada to New Zealand.

In December 1996, he was appointed as Revenue Canada�s Deputy Minister and on November 1, 2021 he became the Commissioner of the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency.

Mr. Wright was born in 1951 in northwestern Ontario.He has a BA in economics from the University of Western Ontario and an MA in economics from the University of Manitoba.